Health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is a bacteria that was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract by research professors Sherwood Gorbach and Barry Goldwin hence the suffix letters GG.

Since that time Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been one of the most widely studied probiotic strains and is used in a variety of commercially available probiotic supplements.

Probiotics are bacteria and yeast that are good for you, especially the digestive system. LGG was identified as a probiotic strain because of its resistance to acid and bile, good growth characteristics, and a capacity to adhere to the gut wall [1].

The ability to ‘stick’ to the intestinal cell wall prolongs the persistence of a probiotic in the intestine and allows it to exert its helpful effects longer.

Health benefits for supplementing LGG include the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal infections and diarrhoea, promoting a healthy immune response, improving neural function, reducing inflammation, combating allergies and assisting weight loss [2].

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Benefits

Lactobacillus rhamnosus helps prevent diarrhoea and GI infections

Because of its excellent adhesion properties in the gut, LGG has been shown to help prevent and treat gastrointestinal infections and diarrhoea. LGG reduces the duration of diarrhoea in children [3], and significantly reduces the duration of diarrhoea symptoms in healthy adults taking antibiotics [4].

Administering probiotics containing LGG in hospitals has been shown to prevent patients contracting clostridium difficile infections [5]. Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can infect the bowel and cause diarrhoea.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus for immunity

It is believed that probiotic microorganisms, especially LGG, have the ability to modulate the immune system. LGG increases the response of the body’s white blood cells, T-lymphocytes, to search out and destroy pathogens [6].

LGG reduces the pro-inflammatory chemicals produced in the body during an infection, and at the same time increases the anti-inflammatory response [7].

Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG enhances the gut barrier defence against invading pathogens to help prevent infection [8].

Lactobacillus rhamnosus improves diabetes

Insulin resistance is the driving factor that leads to type II diabetes. Supplementing with Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and decrease the risk of hypoglycaemia [9], where blood sugar levels fall to below normal levels.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG aids weight loss

Research tells us that there is a difference in gut bacteria between the overweight and those of healthy weight [10].

One study investigated the impact of Lactobacillus rhamnosus supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese women and found they were able to achieve sustainable weight loss [11].

Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG helps with depression and anxiety

A growing body of literature has demonstrated bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gut microbiome [12], effectively meaning that the gut and the brain talk to one another. Studies have shown that Lactobacillus rhamnosus can positively help with symptoms of depression and anxiety [13].

Lactobacillus rhamnosus improves irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

The role that probiotics play in relieving irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been demonstrated, but the mechanism remained unclear.

But supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was found to increase the production of serotonin in the gut [14]. Serotonin is a chemical that has a wide variety of functions in the human body. It is sometimes called the happy chemical, because it contributes to wellbeing and happiness.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus prevents eczema

A Lactobacillus rhamnosus supplement was found to prevent the development of eczema in a group of high risk children [15]. Even after ceasing the supplementation, children show a significantly less prevalence of eczema.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus improves dental health

Lactobacillus rhamnosus has been shown to improve dental health by keeping the numbers of Streptococcus mutans in check in the oral cavity [16]. Streptococcus mutans are a known cause of tooth decay.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus and candida

Candida is a yeast infection found in the mouth, intestinal tract and vagina. When it grows to excessive amounts in the gut, it can contribute to food sensitivities, leaky gut syndrome and a host of other negative physical and mental conditions.

Supplementing with Lactobacillus rhamnosus has been shown to significantly increase the effectiveness of pharmaceutical treatments of vaginal candidiasis [17].

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is beneficial during pregnancy

Establishment of a healthy gut microbiota at birth helps a newborn to develop a well-functioning immune system.

A prevalence of the species Bifidobacterium is associated with a healthy microbiota in newborn babies, and mothers that supplement Lactobacillus rhamnosus during pregnancy help the transfer and establishment of bifidobacteria in the gut of their babies [18].

Effective supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus

It is always beneficial to digestive health to include probiotic foods within your diet, as these can help with nutrient absorption and support the immune system.

Probiotic foods include kefir, fermented vegetables such as sauerkraut and kimchi, kombucha and yoghurt.

A colony forming unit is used to quantify how many bacteria in a probiotic are capable of dividing and forming colonies. Generally, 5 billion colony forming units (CFU’s) per day for children and 10 billion/day for adults of Lactobacillus LGG are associated with more significant study outcomes [19].

Inessa Advanced Daily Biotic delivers 10 billion CFU’s guaranteed to expiry date of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in advanced day release capsules proven to improve probiotic survival and delivery.

The capsules also contain the amino acid glutamine, which is a vital nutrient for the intestines to rebuild and repair.

[1] Doron, S. Snydman, D. & Gorbach, S. (2005) ‘Lactobacillus GG: Bacteriology and clinical applications’ Gastroenterology Clinics 34(3);483-498.

[2] Ouwehand, A. Salminen, S. Isolauri, E. (2002) ‘Probiotics: an overview of beneficial effects.’ In: Siezen, R. Kok, J. Abee, T. Schasfsma, G. (eds) Lactic acid bacteria: Genetics, metabolism and applications. Springer, Dordrecht

[3] Szajewska, H. Skorka, A. Ruszczynski, M. et al. (2007) ‘Meta-analysis: the effects of Lactobacillus GG for treating acute diarrhoea in children’ Ailment Pharmacol Ther 25:871-881.

[4] Evans, M. Salewski, R. Christman, M. et al. (2016) ‘Effectiveness of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus for the management of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in healthy adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial’ British Journal of Nutrition 116(1):94-103.

[5] Shen, N. Maw, A. Tmanova, L. et al. (2017) ‘Timely use of probiotics in hospitalised adults prevents clostridium difficile infection: A systematic review with meta-regression analysis’ Gastroenterology 152(8):1889-1900.e9.

[6] Kirjavainen, P. El Nezami, H. Salminen, S. et al. (1999) ‘Effects of orally administered viable Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii susp. Shermanii JS on mouse lymphocyte proliferation’ Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 6(6):799-802.

[7] Kekkonen, R. Lummela, N. Karjalainen, H. et al. (2008) ‘Probiotic intervention has strain-specific anti-inflammatory effects in healthy adults’ World J Gastroenterol 14(13):2029-2036.

[8] Nermes, M. Kantele, J. Atosuo, T. et al. (2011) ‘ Interaction of orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG with skin and gut microbiota and humoral immunity in infants with atopic dermatitis’ Clinical & Experimental Allergy 41(3):370-377.

[9] Kim, S. Park, K. Kim, B. et al. (2013) ‘Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG improves insulin sensitivity and reduces adiposity in high-fat diet fed mice through enhancement of adinopectin production’ Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 431(2):258-263.

[10] Ley, R. Turnbaugh, P. Klein, S. et al. (2006) ‘Microbial ecology: Human gut microbes associated with obesity’ Nature 444:1022-1023.

[11] Sanchez, M. Darimont, C. Drapeau, V. et al. (2014) ‘Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women’ British Journal of Nutrition 111(8):1507-1519.

[12] Mayer, E. Knight, R. Mazmanian, S. et al. (2014) ‘Gut microbes and the brain: Paradigm shift in neuroscience’ Journal of Neuroscience 34(46):15490-15496.

[13] Sarkar, A. Lehto, S. Harty, S. et al. (2016) ‘Psychobiotics and the manipulation of bacteria-gut-brain signals’ Trends in Neurosciences 39(11):763-781.

[14] Wang, Y. Ge, X. Wang, W. et al. (2015) ‘Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG supernatant upregulates serotonin transporter expression in intestinal epithelial cells and mice intestinal tissues’ Neurogastroenterology & Motility 27(9):1239-1248.

[15] Wickens, K. Stanley, T. Mitchell, E. et al. (2013) ‘Early supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 reduces eczema prevalence to 6 years: does it also reduce atopic sensitisation?’ Clin Exp Allergy 43(9):1048-1057.

[16] Nase, L. Hatakka, K. Savilahti, E. et al. (2001) ‘Effect of long-term consumption of a probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, in milk on dental caries and caries risk in children’ Caries Research 35(6):412-420.

[17] Martinez, R. Franceschini, S. Patta, M. et al. (2009) ‘Improved treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with fluconazole plus probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14’ Letters in Applied Microbiology 48(3):269-274.

[18] Gueimonde, M. Sakata, S. Kalliomaki, M. et al. (2006) ‘Effect of maternal consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on transfer and establishment of faecal bifidobacterial microbiota in neonates’ Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 42(2):166-170.

[19] Kun Lee, Y. & Salminen, S. (2009) ‘Handbook of probiotics and prebiotics’ Wiley, Hoboken.